Friday, August 26, 2016

This Day in Indiana History - August 26, 1838 - Governor Wallace Authorizes Potawatamie Removal

Exploring Indiana's Historic Sites,
Markers & Museums
South East Edition
August 26, 1838 - Governor Wallace Authorizes Potawatamie Removal
Under the authority of the Indian Removal Act, Indiana Governor David Wallace authorized John Tipton to remove the Potawatamie tribe from Indiana. The Potawatomi Trail of Death followed the action.
Indian Removal Act
President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law on May 28, 1830.  Using the law, Indiana Governor David Wallace authorized General John Tipton to use the militia to round up the Potawatomi tribe under Chief Menominee and force them from the state. The Indian Removal Act gave the President the authority to grant Amerindian tribes in the east lands in the lands west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their eastern lands. The law was meant primarily for the Cherokee in the southeast United States, but it was also used as a tool to remove other tribes, also.
John Tipton (August 14, 1786 – April 5, 1839)
John was born in Sevier County, Tennessee, where his father died in an Amerindian raid. He moved to Harrison County, Indiana in 1803 and married Martha Shields. He farmed and fought natives, leading a unit of the famed Yellow Jackets during the Battle of Tippecanoe. His next military experience was commanding Fort Vallonia as major during the War of 1812. He gained election to the Indiana State House of Representatives from 1819 to 1823. During this time, he was involved in the formation of Bartholomew County and its county seat, Columbus.
Indiana Governor David Wallace (April 24, 1799 – September 4, 1859)
The eldest of seven children of Andrew and Eleanor Wallace, Wallace was a native of Lewistown, Pennsylvania. The family moved first to Cincinnati, then to Brookville, Indiana in 1817. His father and Indiana Territorial Governor William Henry Harrison had become friends during the War of 1812. Harrison helped secure a berth for David in the United States Military Academy. He later attended West Point, from which he graduated in 1821. After graduation, he served as a second lieutenant at the school, where he taught math. After resigning around 1822, he returned to Brookville to study law. He gained admittance to the bar in 1823 and opened a practice in Brookville. During these years, he served in the Indiana militia, as lieutenant, captain, and finally colonel. His political career began with his election to the Indiana House of Representatives in 1828. The voters elected him lieutenant governor in 1831, serving under Governor Noah Noble. He was elected governor in 1837, an office he held until 1840.
Menominee (circa 1791 – April 15, 1841)
Historians know little of Chief Menominee's early life. Many think he was born in Wisconsin or northern Indiana. He became a religious leader of the Potawatomi, combining elements of Amerindian spirituality with Roman Catholicism. He signed various treaties with the Americans, ceding lands them. He refused to sign a treaty that would have deprived the Potawatomi of their final lands in Indiana. Many of the Potawatomi gathered at Menominee's village. Whites continued to encroach on his lands, leading to conflicts between the Potawatomi and the trespassers. Minor incidents occurred, resulting in the settlers appealing to Governor Wallace to protect them. Wallace authorized Tipton to use force to remove the Potawatomi.
Potawatomi Trail of Death
Tipton gathered a force of about 100 militia, surprised the Potawatomi at their village, and rounded them up. On September 4, the militia forced the 859 natives from their homes. The following march of 660 miles crossed Indiana, Illinois and Missouri. About forty-one Potawatomi died on the way, mostly of cholera from contaminated drinking water. Most of the victims were children. The Potawatomi crossed the Mississippi River into Missouri at Quincy, Illinois. They arrived at their destination of Osawatomie, Kansas on November 4, 1838. The refugees had no shelter, which the government had promised them, and little food.
For more information about the Potawatomi Trail of Death and their history, contact:
The Association maintains a Trail of Death Historic trail that travels the approximate route of the Potawatomi. A series of markers along the trail commemorate their journey.
This article excerpted from the author’s book:
Exploring Indiana's Historic Sites, Markers & Museums North Central Edition

Thursday, August 25, 2016

This Day in Indiana History - August 25, 1795 - Northwest Territorial Assembly Adjourns - Maxwell's Code Becomes Law

Exploring Indiana's Historic Sites,
Markers & Museums
South East Edition
August 25, 1795 - Northwest Territorial Assembly Adjourns - Maxwell's Code Becomes Law
Meeting in the town of Cincinnati, the Northwest Assembly revised and passed a series of laws for the newly created Northwest Territory that Northwest Territorial Governor Arthur St. Clair had compiled. The assembly passed the last of these laws on August 20, 1795 and adjourned on August 25.
Governor of Northwest Territory
President Washington appointed St. Claire as governor of the Northwest Territory in 1787. He would establish the Northwest Territory initially at Marietta, Ohio. Later the capital would move to Cincinnati, Ohio. He would serve as Territorial Governor of first the Northwest Territory, then the Ohio Territory until 1802.
Cincinnati 
Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson and Israel Ludlow established the settlement of Cincinnati in 1798 when they landed their boat on the north shore of the Ohio River. Surveyor John Filson called the town Losantiville when he platted the town. Governor Arthur St. Clair renamed the town "Cincinnati," when he moved the capital of the Northwest Territory to the town in 1790. St. Clair named it in honor of the Revolutionary War veteran group, Society of the Cincinnati, to which he belonged.
Maxwell's Code
From June 1795 until August 1795, the Assembly worked at the task of recreating a set of laws for the Northwest Territory that had been in force, but to which Congress had objected. When they finished their task, the Governor turned their work over to printer William Maxwell of Cincinnati to publish. The published work became the first book printed in Ohio and formed the basis of law in the Northwest Territory until Congress formed the Indiana Territory in 1800 from the western portion of the Northwest Territory. The laws became known as Maxwell's Code, deriving their name from the printer, William Maxwell.

Wednesday, August 24, 2016

This Day in Indiana History - August 24, 1781 Lochry's Massacre - Near Aurora, Indiana

Lochry Massacre Site - Riverview Cemetery - Aurora Indiana
Lochry Massacre Site - Riverview Cemetery - Aurora Indiana

Archibald Lochry (April 15, 1733— August 24, 1781)
The son of Irish immigrants Jeremiah Loughery and Mary Murphy, Archibald was native to Octorarro Settlement, Ireland. The family migrated to York County, Pennsylvania sometime in the late 1730's. At maturity, Archibald became a powerful man, acquiring land and holding several political posts. He gained his first military experience during the latter stages of the French and Indian War when he enlisted on July 18, 1763.
Revolutionary War
Exploring Indiana's Historic Sites,
Markers & Museums
South East Edition
In 1781, Lochry received an appointment to serve as colonel in the militia and given authority to recruit 200 men to launch attacks against the native tribes that were attacking the Pennsylvania frontier as part of the hostilities of the Revolutionary War. Since many were reluctant to leave their homes defenseless during a time of conflict, Lochry was only able to recruit 107 men. The company was ready to move by July 1781. Lochry had agreed to join an expedition led by General George Rogers Clark of Virginia on an expedition that was to move down the Ohio River and recruit men in Kentucky. From there they would either move against Fort Detroit or attack Delaware and Shawnee tribes deep in the heart of Indian country in current Indiana and Ohio. These tribes were harassing the Pennsylvania frontier.
The Campaign
Clark departed down the Ohio first from Wheeling. Initially, the two groups were to leave Wheeling together. However, Clark had a bad problem with desertion. His soldiers were reluctant to leave their homes for extended periods, leaving their families undefended, deserted in large numbers. This drove Clark to try to move further west faster than anticipated in the hopes of cutting down on desertions. Lochry arrived at Wheeling on August 8, only to find that Clark had already left. Lochry's men built boats and departed Wheeling after spending a few days building the boats they needed. While there, Lochry sent a canoe downstream with a message to Clark relating that they were low on supplies for both men, horses, and would follow Clark as soon as they could. This message did not reach General Clark. Forces led by George Girty and Chief Joseph Brandt intercepted the messages and began immediately to assemble a force to attack Lochry.
Lochry's Massacre
After departing Wheeling, Lochry kept his boats to the middle of the Ohio River to prevent attack from the shore. Girty and Brandt shadowed the force onshore as it made its way downriver. After several days of travel, Lochry had to go ashore to allow the horses to graze and obtain food for his men. They landed near the mouth of present day Laughery Creek. They killed a buffalo and prepared to cook it while the horses grazed. Meanwhile, danger gathered in the woodland surrounding them. The numbers Brandt and Girty had to attack are not certain, somewhere between 150 and 500 warriors attacked Lochry's force, catching them by surprise. In the short battle that followed, the natives forced Lochry to surrender. About thirty-seven died in the attack, including Lochry, who was reportedly tomahawked as he sat on a log after the surrender. The remainder of the prisoners were marched up trails by the Miami River. The natives ransomed some, killed some and adopted others. Only around twenty-five survived the attack.
Aftermath

Clark's proposed attack against Detroit died with Lochry's Massacre. Lacking the manpower to carry it out, he abandoned the plan. His capture of Vincennes in 1779 would not be repeated at Detroit.

A government clerk on the first documents misspelled the name ‘Laughery’, and the name has remained unchanged. Riverview Cemetery, the approximate location of the battle near Aurora, contains a monument to Lochry and his men, and a list of the soldiers who took part in the battle.

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

This Day in Indiana History - August 23, 1949 - Actress Shelley Long Was Born In Fort Wayne

A Day in Indiana History - August
A Day in Indiana History - August
August 23, 1949 - Actress Shelley Long Was Born In Fort Wayne 
Shelley Long (August 23, 1949 - ?)
The daughter of Leland Long and Ivadine Williams long, Shelly is a native of Fort Wayne, Indiana. After attending elementary and high school in Fort Wayne area schools, she enrolled in Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois majoring in drama. She quit school to take minor parts in several television series before landing her role in the hit television series Cheers. She spent five years playing Diane Chambers, doing movies on the off-season. She left the show to pursue a movie career. These movies included Irreconcilable Differences, Outrageous Fortune and Hello Again. She later played Carol Brady in The Brady Bunch Movie and A Very Brady Sequel. Shelly continues to be involved in the movie and television industry.

Monday, August 22, 2016

Aurora, Indiana

View of Ohio River from Lesko Park, Aurora Indiana
View of Ohio River from Lesko Park, Aurora Indiana
Exploring Indiana's Historic Sites, Markers & Museums - South East Edition
Exploring Indiana's Historic Sites,
Markers & Museums
South East Edition
Aurora, Indiana
Aurora is a southeastern Indiana town on the Ohio River. Located on US 50, Indiana State Roads 48, 56 and 350 begin their westward journey in Aurora. Indiana State Road 350 connects Aurora with Osgood, Indiana to the west. Indiana State Road 56 links it to Rising Sun, Indiana to the west.
History of Aurora
Platted in 1819, Aurora derives its name from the Roman Aurora, the goddess of dawn. Trustee Jesse L. Holman filed the plat on January 14, 1819. Cincinnati resident Charles Vattier purchased the land from the United States Government on September 18, 1804. Dearborn county residents purchased the land from Vattier in 1819. The plat marked 206 lots and six public squares. The first public auction of lots in Aurora took place on April 13, 1819. Aurora, Indiana has a history as an important river port on the Ohio River. The town saw some settlement as early as 1796. An engagement of the Revolutionary War took place on the banks of nearby Laughery Creek. On August 24, 1781 Chief Joseph Brant, a leader of the Mohawk Indians, intercepted Colonel Archibald Andrew Lochry near the site of what is now Aurora and massacred or captured the unit under Lochey's command. A memorial is located at River view Cemetery in Aurora.
River View Cemetery
Established in 1869 on the banks of Laughery Creek on the site of Lochrey’s Massacre, the thirty-acre cemetery includes a historical marking the massacre and contains the graves of over 13,000 people.  Located at the intersection of Indiana State Road 56 and East Laughery Road, the cemetery is a serene resting place.
Aurora Ferry
Shortly after the town's founding, Aurora granted a license to operate a ferry to Boone County, Kentucky to one Phillip Craig in 1819. Early ferries provided a much-needed link between Aurora and Kentucky, across the Ohio River. Horses walking on a treadmill provided power for a pair of side mounted paddle to the early ferries. The Aurora ferry would have horses providing power for the ferry until an ice gorge destroyed the ferry in 1918. The ferry operated until 1978 when the I-275 Bridge made it unprofitable.
Aurora Railroad Depot
The railroad depot was established on land originally settled by Scot John Gillis in the 1890's. Gills, a veteran of the American Revolution, constructed a two-room cabin on the site that the depot currently occupies. The Ohio & Mississippi Railroad Depot purchased the property in 1853. The first train departed for Cochran Indiana on April 4, 1854.
For more information about the history of Aurora, click this link.

The official Aurora website contains more history of the town as well as information regarding lodging, restaurants and shopping.
Aurora Website

Visitors can witness a variety of architectural styles in Aurora. These styles gave evidence of the town’s sporadic and sometimes rapid growth due to its prominence as both a busy port and later a railroad stop. The CSX railroad still maintains a line that passes through the town.
For more information about shopping, dining and lodging in Aurora, contact the Dearborn County Visitor Center.
Dearborn County Visitor Center
320 Walnut Street
Lawrenceburg, IN 47025
Phone: 812-537-0814
Toll Free: 800-322-8198
Fax: 812-537-0845
E-mail: dearborn@visitsoutheastindiana.com

Aurora Attractions
Ohio River Scenic Byway
Waterways Park
Aurora Post Office
Aurora Farmer's Fair
Aurora City Park - Aurora Pool
Dearborn County Country View Golf
Mary Stratton Park
A Road of Thunder" Riverboat Regatta
Aurora Walking Tour
Aurora Alley Tour
Stone Eagle Golf Club
Put A Round Miniature Golf
City of Spires Historical Museum and Foundation Inc.
Camp Shore Camp Ground
Veraestau Historic Mansion
Hillforest Historic Mansion
Lesko Park
Herman Leive House
Busse Farm
Aurora Marina And Campground
The Southeastern Indiana Art Guild
Dearborn Trails – Aurora – Lawrenceburg – Greendale Indiana

This Day in Indiana History - August 22, 1840 - The First Meeting of the Indiana Horticultural Society in Indianapolis

A Day in Indiana History - August
A Day in Indiana History - August
August 22, 1840 - The First Meeting of the Indiana Horticultural Society in Indianapolis
Inspired by famous minister, Henry Ward Beecher, the Indiana Horticultural Society meets in Indianapolis for the first time.
Henry Ward Beecher (June 24, 1813 – March 8, 1887) 
The son of Lyman Beecher and Roxana Foote, Henry was native to Litchfield, Connecticut. He was a brother to Harriet Beecher Stow, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin. He attended Mount Pleasant Classical Institute and Amherst College, graduating in 1834. He overcame a speech impediment to become a noted orator. After attending Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, Ohio, Beecher entered the ministry. His first parish was in Lawrenceburg, Indiana. He arrived in Lawrenceburg on July 8, 1737. He would then move to Indianapolis, where he would remain for eight years. He was an avid gardener with a keen interest in agriculture. During his time in Indiana, he also became nationally noted for his abolitionist and women's suffrage views.
Indiana Horticultural Society
Begun in 1840 at the encouragement of Reverend Beecher, the first meeting was held on August 22. Farmers from around the state came to Indianapolis with their best produce to show and to become acquainted with new varieties and farm
ing methods. The Society lasted until 1847, when it dissolved, most likely because Beecher left Indiana. The Society revived under the name Indiana Pomological Society in 1860. Members of the group would rename it the Indiana Horticultural Society in 1863.

Friday, August 19, 2016

This Day in Indiana History - August 19, 1888 - Mary F. Thomas Dies - Richmond Physician

Exploring Indiana's Historic Sites, Markers & Museums - East Central Edition
Exploring Indiana's Historic Sites,
Markers & Museums
East Central Edition
August 19, 1888 - Mary F. Thomas Dies - Richmond Physician
Mary F. Thomas (October 28, 1816 - August 19, 1888)
The daughter of Quakers Samuel and Mary Myers, Mary was native to Montgomery County, Maryland. While a young girl, the family lived in Washington DC. Her father took her to Congressional debates, igniting a lifelong interest in politics in the young girl. While in Washington, her father became active in the abolitionist movement. To escape the blemish of slavery, Samuel moved the family to a farm in New Lisbon, Ohio. She and her two sisters learned farm work and gained their education while their father tutored them in the evenings. In Lisbon She met, and married, Quaker Dr. Owen Thomas in 1839. The two would have three daughters.
Medical Training
Dr. Thomas took her to Wabash College in Indiana to study medicine. She would later attend medical lectures at the Penn's Medical College for Women in Philadelphia. She graduated from Penn in 1854 and moved to Fort Wayne Indiana to practice medicine. The family moved to Richmond, Indiana in 1856 and resided there the remainder of their lives.
Women's Suffrage 
While living in Lisbon, she attended a lecture given by women's suffrage advocate Lucretia Mott. She would later become active in the women's suffrage movement, serving as the president of the Indiana Woman’s Rights Association in 1859. She became the first woman to address the Indiana State Legislature when she presented a petition for a woman’s suffrage amendment to the Indiana Constitution. She was active in the Indiana Women’s Rights Association and would become the first female member of the State Medical Association.
Women's rights activists formed the Indiana Woman’s Rights Association in Richmond, Indiana in October 1851. Hannah Hiatt of Winchester served as president and Amanda Way as vice-president. The organization was active for a number of years, and then became inactive for about ten years. It reorganized as the Indiana Woman's Suffrage Association in 1869.
Civil War Years
During the Civil War, she Indiana Governor Morton sent her to transport medical supplies to the war front as part of the Sanitary Commission by steamboat. On her return to Indiana, she helped care for wounded Union troops. After the war, she became active with the Home for Friendless Women, a cause she would continue until her death on August 19, 1888.