Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - February 22, 1862 - First Confederate Prisoner of War Camp Opens - Camp Morton

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

February 22, 1862 - First Confederate Prisoner of War Camp Opens - Camp Morton
Confederate troops first fired on Fort Sumter in South Carolina on April 12, 1861. On April 14, 1861, Indiana Governor Oliver Morton offered to raise ten regiments, or ten thousand men, in response to President Abraham Lincoln's call for troops to put down the southern rebellion. Raising this many recruits created the need for a recruiting and training camp. After surveying the land around Indianapolis, the only suitable place found was the land used as the State Fairgrounds, established in 1852. Thus, the thirty-six acre State Fairgrounds became a Union Army training camp and recruitment facility. Named Camp Morton, in honor of the Governor, the camp came under his direct administration.
Conversion to Prisoner of War Camp
Union victories at Fort Donelson in February 1862 created another need. The Union Army had captured thousands of Confederate soldiers. There was a need to house these prisoners. Union General Henry W. Halleck dispatched a request by telegraph for prisoner of war facilities and Governor Morton agreed to take up to 3000 prisoners on February 17, 1863. Morton assigned assistant quartermaster Captain James A. Ekin the task of converting the camp from a training camp to a prisoner of war facility. Ekin oversaw the conversion of livestock stalls into barracks, the installation of a wooden stockade wall around the camp. Workers installed entry gates, guard towers and sentry walkways. Workers also installed latrines. Five wells provided water.
Arrival of the Prisoners
Work had not completed on the camp when the first trains arrived on February 22, 1862 with the first prisoners. The prisoner population increased to over 4000 prisoners by April. The Army took over administration of the camp with the arrival of the first prisoners. The camp remained crowded until August 1862 when the Union and Confederate armies completed a general prisoner exchange. Camp Morton again became a training camp. By early 1863, there was again a need for a prisoner of war camp and the Army converted the facility again. The last prisoners were paroled June 12, 1865. During its operation, the camp housed an average of 3214, with the maximum of 4900 in July 1864. The deaths at the camp totaled 1700, or about fifty a month. The dead soldiers were interred at Crown Hill Cemetery.
After the war, the grounds reverted to the Indiana State Fairgrounds, which used the site until 1891. The Camp Morton site has since been platted and used as a residential neighborhood known as Morton Place.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
Facebook
@indianatreker
@MossyFeetBooks
Twitter
@MossyFeetBooks
© Paul Wonning

Tuesday, February 21, 2017

February 21, 1865 - 143rd Regiment, Indiana Infantry Mustered

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

February 21, 1865 - 143rd Regiment, Indiana Infantry Mustered
During the Civil War regiments often organized by county, thus most recruits in a regiment came from a certain geographical area. The 143rd was composed of men from the First Congressional District that includes the area around Gary, Indiana. On December 20, 1864, the state put out a call to organize eleven regiments. A civil war regiment consisted of ten companies of 100 men, bringing a regiment's strength to a total of 1000 soldiers. The state established recruiting stations in the Provost Marshal's headquarters in each region. The recruiting office sent new recruits to Indianapolis to organize the regiments. The enlistment terms of these recruits were to be for one year.
143rd Regiment Structure
Colonel John F. Grill, Lieutenant - Colonel John T. McQuiddy and Major John E. Phillips commanded the new Regiment, which mustered out on February 21, 1865. The Regiment went to Murfreesboro, Tennessee via Nashville. It served on guard duty until May 13, 1865 when it moved to Tullahoma, Tennessee. The rest of its time in existence, it continued to serve guard duty in various places in Tennessee. At one point, the regiment was broken into three units to serve as guards in three different places. When reunited on October 17 in Nashville, the unit was mustered out. The regiment suffered 90 dead, mostly from disease and one was killed in action. Another 78 deserted. The original regimental strength was 998.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
Facebook
@indianatreker
@MossyFeetBooks
Twitter
@MossyFeetBooks
© Paul Wonning

Monday, February 20, 2017

February 20, 1842 - First Medical School in Indiana - Laporte University

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

February 20, 1842 - First Medical School in Indiana - Laporte University
When the Indiana Medical College at Laporte opened, the school provided the first professional medical training school within the boundaries of Indiana. Prior to the opening of this school the closest school for prospective doctors, to attend medical lectures was at the Medical Department of Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky.
Early Doctors in Indiana
Until 1842 most doctors in the Indiana were self-trained, or had served apprenticeships with other doctors. The rare doctor that had a medical degree had likely obtained it from a medical school east of the Allegheny Mountains. When the Legislature chartered Vincennes University in 1807 they had made provision for a medical school, but it had never materialized.
Indiana Medical College
Doctor Daniel Meeker hosted a series of lectures on the general practice of medicine at the College beginning in 1842. The College had one eight-week session, which began in March. A student needed two eight-week sessions to obtain a medical degree.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
Facebook
@indianatreker
@MossyFeetBooks
Twitter
@MossyFeetBooks
© Paul Wonning

Sunday, February 19, 2017

February 19, 1884 - Enigma Outbreak - Tornadoes Across Ten States

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

February 19, 1884 - Enigma Outbreak - Tornadoes Across Ten States
On the morning of February 19, 1884, a bitter cold front from the Arctic met a warm, humid air mass over the southeastern United States, triggering a historic tornado outbreak. The storms created by the unstable air triggered at least fifty tornadoes across ten states. The exact number of tornadoes and deaths caused by the storms has led to the name, the Enigma Outbreak.
Ten States and Hundreds of Deaths
The winter of 1884 had been rainy across most of the United States. Rivers flooded and the earth turned to soupy mud. February 19 dawned clear and warm. People reveled in the first nice weather in months. That revelry soon turned to horror as the terrible storms developed and dozens of tornadoes thundered across the land. Ten states, Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia felt the ravages of the storms. The strongest outbreaks occurred in Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina. Two struck in southwest Indiana, the most northern outbreak in the swarm. Death attributed to the storms range from 178 to over 1200. There were over fifty confirmed tornadoes, with many more suspected.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
Facebook
@indianatreker
@MossyFeetBooks
Twitter
@MossyFeetBooks
© Paul Wonning

Friday, February 17, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - February 17, 1838 - Indiana Legislature Creates Mishawaka by Combining Four "Towns"

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

February 17, 1838 - Indiana Legislature Creates Mishawaka by Combining Four "Towns"
Four villages had grown up in the Mishawaka area by late 1839. Indiana City was on the north Bank of the river.  St. Joseph Ironworks and its two additions occupied the south bank. St. Joseph's Ironworks two additions were Barbees Addition on the east side and Taylor's Addition on the west side.
St. Joseph Ironworks
A Detroit businessman named Alanson M. Hurd sent William Earl to the area of the St. Joseph River in 1832 to study the area's possibility. Earl was a prospector and found deposits of bog iron in the river. He followed the deposits to a marshy area near the river and found large bog iron deposits there. He returned to Hurd and reported his findings. Upon his personal inspection, Hurd decided to build a blast furnace at the site to extract the iron from the ore. Hurd platted the town of St. Joseph Ironworks in 1833. The blast furnace and the jobs it promised attracted people and people created the need for businesses. This led to the two additions to St. Joseph's Ironworks, Taylors Addition and Barbees Addition. The first elections for St. Joseph's Ironworks occurred on January 1, 1835, resulting in the election of five village trustees. The blast furnace at St. Joseph's Ironworks was the first blast furnace in Indiana.
Bog Iron
Bog iron develops in boggy areas from iron rich water emerging from springs. Bacteria in the water, called iron bacteria, acts on this dissolved iron, oxidizing it, creating the bog iron ores from which a blast furnace can extract usable iron.
Taylors Addition
Taylor's Addition grew up on the west side of St. Joseph's Ironworks. This addition acquired a post office in 1834. The Post Office was given the name "Mishawaka."
Barbees Addition
William Barbee laid out an addition on the east side of St. Joseph's Ironworks in 1833. This addition also developed into a small village.
Indiana City
Three men, Joseph Bartell, James R. Lawrence and Grove Lawrence, platted Indiana City on the north bank of the St. Joseph's River, directly opposite St. Joseph's Ironworks and its two additions. This created four growing villages in the area.
The Legislature Acts
On February 17, 1838, the Indiana Legislature combined the four cities, using the name of one of St. Joseph's Ironworks as the name for the new town, "Mishawaka." This is an Amerindian word whose meaning is the source of disagreement. One favored meaning is that it means "big rapids." Another group favors the theory that the name is that of an Indian Princess.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
Facebook
@indianatreker
@MossyFeetBooks
Twitter
@MossyFeetBooks
© Paul Wonning

Indianapolis Artsgarden/Visitor Center

Indianapolis Artsgarden/Visitor Center
Indianapolis Artsgarden
Indianapolis Artsgarden
The Artsgarden is the centerpiece of downtown Indianapolis, spanning the busy Washington/Illinois intersection. It serves as the site for numerous events, concerts and art shows throughout the year. Visitors will also find a visitor center with many brochures, maps and books about Indianapolis and Marion County. A staffer on answers questions and provides information to curious tourists.
The Artsgarden



Designed by the New York architectural firm Ehrenkrantz Eckstut & Kuhn Architects, the 19,000 square foot Artsgarden spans the intersection of Washington and Illinois Streets. The Lily Endowment funded the twelve million dollar construction cost in 1995. Two 185-foot steel plate girders support the structure seventeen feet above the intersection. The top of the structure stands seven stories, or ninety-five feet above the floor of the Artsgarden. Over 32,000 square feet of glass covers the structure. 
Ehrenkrantz Eckstut & Kuhn Architects
Founded in 1959 in Berkley, California by Ezra Ehrenkrantz as the Building Systems Development, the company underwent a series of mergers as it grew. Ehrenkrantz opened an office in New York in 1972, naming it the Ehrenkrantz Group. The company specializes in urban development, school and campus design and historic preservation, among other things. The company maintains offices in New York City, Washington DC, Los Angeles, and Shanghai, China.
Walkway

The Artsgarden serves primarily as a pedestrian walkway that allows people to travel, unimpeded by weather or traffic, across the busy Washington/Illinois Street intersection. It connects the downtown Circle Center Mall with hotels and other businesses on both sides of the street.
Events and Concerts
Event Area - Artsgarden
Event Area - Artsgarden

The Arts Council hosts over 250 events per year in the Artsgarden. These events range from free art exhibits to public concerts. The Artsgarden may also be rented for private parties, weddings and corporate events.
Fabulous Views of City
View of Downtown Indianpolis - Artsgarden
View of Downtown Indianpolis - Artsgarden

The 32,000 square feet of glass that enclose the structure afford some magnificent views of downtown Indianapolis down both Illinois and Washington Streets. Benches are provided for visitors to sit and watch traffic pass under them along both streets.
Weddings
It is possible to rent the Artsgarden for weddings. It has proven a popular nuptial venue. Rental fees from weddings and events support the various public arts programs that occur in the Artsgarden.
Arts Council of Indianapolis
The Arts Council of Indianapolis owns the Artsgarden and manages it. For more information about the Arts Council, contact:
Arts Council of Indianapolis
924 N. Pennsylvania St. (Mailing Address),
1 North Illinois (Physical Address of the Artsgarden)
Indianapolis, IN 46204
(317) 631-3301
indyarts@indyarts.org


Thursday, February 16, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - February 16, 1852 - Henry and Clement Studebaker Open Blacksmith Shop - South Bend

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

February 16, 1852 - Henry and Clement Studebaker Open Blacksmith Shop - South Bend
Two of the five sons of John C. Studebaker migrated from their home in Ashland, Ohio to South Bend, Indiana. Clement and Henry's total assets consisted of sixty-eight dollars and two sets of blacksmith tools. They also had their father John's advice, "Always give more than you promise."
John C. Studebaker (1833-1917)
John was a blacksmith and wagon maker in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. He and his wife Rebecca Mohler Studebaker had ten children, five sons and five daughters. John proved an excellent blacksmith and wagon maker, but poor businessman. He found himself far in debt because he extended too much credit for too long to his customers. His sons all learned his trade before he was forced to sell his business, build a Conestoga wagon and flee to Ashland, Ohio. His debtors caught up with him and again he moved the family in the same Conestoga wagon. This time he landed in South Bend, Indiana.
H&C Studebaker
The brothers Henry and Clement set up their shop in South Bend and enjoyed limited success at the beginning. A third brother, John Mohler, or JM, migrated by wagon train to California in 1852. He had gone to the gold fields to seek his fortune there, like hundreds of other men. Upon arrival, he had fifty cents in his pocket. His intention was to manufacture wagons, however a local blacksmith persuaded him to build wheelbarrows, instead. He took the advice and his wheelbarrows were a success. Pocketing over $8,000 in profits JM returned to South Bend via Panama. The trip persuaded him that the future lay in transportation and he returned to South Bend to invest in his brother's blacksmith and wagon making business. Brother Peter decided to open a wagon distribution business in Goshen, Indiana, giving the brothers another outlet for their wagons. With JM's capital, the brothers began making wagons without waiting for orders from customers. Business began to boom.
Business Expands
When the Civil War began, the company profited from government contracts to build wagons. By 1865, the brothers expanded their range, opening major branch offices in other cities across the state and country. They competed successfully with other wagon manufacturers by using superior workmanship and materials. Their satisfied customer base continued to grow. By 1868, the business had grown to 190 loyal employees. They produced 3,955 that year and their assets had grown from $68 to over $200,000.

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
Facebook
@indianatreker
@MossyFeetBooks
Twitter
@MossyFeetBooks
© Paul Wonning