Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 31, 1871 - Land Purchased for US Quartermaster Depot - Jeffersonville

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 31, 1871 - Land Purchased for US Quartermaster Depot - Jeffersonville
The area around Jeffersonville, Indiana became an important military area during the Civil War. The Jefferson General Hospital served as one of the main hospitals for wounded Union soldiers and Camp Joe Holt became an important staging area for Union Troops heading into the Southern theatre. The city had three railroads running to it. Its location across from Louisville, Kentucky made it an important Ohio River port.
Origins of the Quartermaster Depot
The Quartermaster Depot had its origins in a garment factory established in one wing of the Jeffersonville General Hospital. In that, factory workers cut out the garments and issued them out to women living in Jeffersonville to take home to assemble. Once assembled, the women took them back for inspection and distribution to soldiers in the field. The rigors of war produced a tremendous demand for many other items. This led to the Depot becoming a major supplier of clothing, harnesses, saddlery, vehicles and other paraphernalia needed for the war effort. The operations became spread out over Jeffersonville as the need grew.
Construction of the US Quartermaster Depot - Jeffersonville
At the conclusion of the war, the Army decided to consolidate the facilities scattered around Jeffersonville. It central location, access to both railroads and the Ohio River made it an ideal spot to stockpile supplies needed for the United States Army. The Army allotted $150,000 to bui76d a new facility in 1867 and on January 31, 1871 finished purchasing the land needed for the structure. Quartermaster General Major General J. C. Meigs designed the building that would consist of huge quadrangle with an opening on each side. The center of the building had a power plant and water tower. The brick and stone building covered 150,000 square feet.
Extended Use
The "Quadrant," as it came to be known, served the Army as a Quartermaster Depot through the Spanish American War, the First and Second World Wars and the Korean War. By 1945, it covered 255.6 acres and had over 150 buildings. By the end of that conflict, its days as a Quartermaster Depot ended. The U. S. Census Bureau opened in it as a temporary facility in 1958 and in 1962 received the designation as a permanent facility. The center now is a 75-acre ultramodern data processing facility with over 100 buildings a work force that includes 1500 to 6000 employees, depending upon need. Today the Quadrant it is home to numerous other offices, storefronts, and the Jeffersonville City Hall.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Monday, January 30, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 30, 1888 - Elkhart Carriage and Harness Manufacturing Company Organized

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 30, 1888 - Elkhart Carriage and Harness Manufacturing Company Organized
Founded by Frederick B. Pratt, the Elkhart Carriage and Harness Manufacturing Company grew into one of the premier carriage manufacturers in the United States. The company began building "horseless carriages" in 1906, finally becoming Pratt-Elkhart Automobiles.
Frederick B. Pratt (December 18, 1822 - July 18, 1903)
The son of Herbert and Caroline (Brooks) Pratt, Frederick was born into the dry goods business, to which both his parents had business interests. In 1846, at twenty-four, he joined his uncle in the hardware business in Battle Creek, Michigan. He left his uncle's employ to start his own store in 1855. This enterprise failed and he rejoined his uncle, who put him in charge of a satellite store in Elkhart, Indiana. After becoming enamored of a buggy he saw on the street in Elkhart, he vowed to start his own buggy manufacturing business. In 1874, he and his son began manufacturing buggies in Elkhart under the name F. B. Pratt & Son. This venture succeeded and by 1884, they built a new four-story building. This building burned in a fire in 1885.
Elkhart Carriage & Harness Manufacturing Company
They reorganized the business in 1888 as the Elkhart Carriage & Harness Manufacturing Company. This company became one of the largest manufacturers and distributors of carriages, buggies and harnesses over the ensuing years. The company built several types of carriages, harnesses, wagons and carriages at the factory, supplying a free catalog of their offerings to all interested queries. The advent of the "horseless carriage" spurred them to explore using their carriages for this new form of transportation.
Pratt-Elkhart Automobiles
The started putting motors on some of their carriages in 1906. They called these motorized wagons the Pratt. This line proved successful and over the years of 1908 - 1909, they transitioned the business over to building horseless carriages, calling the new company Pratt-Elkhart Automobiles. After a few transitions, the company survived as the Elcar Motor Co. until 1934.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Sunday, January 29, 2017

An Indiana History Story a Day - February

An Indiana History Story a Day - February
An Indiana History Story a Day - February

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. An Indiana History Story a Day – February like the Indiana Bicentennial History Series that preceded it, presents Indiana history in an easy to read “this day in history format” The thirty-one stories in the January edition include:

February 05, 1819 - Brookville Enquirer and Indiana Telegraph Organized

February 10, 1851 - The Second Constitutional Convention Concluded In Indianapolis

February 11, 2012 - Connection Between Blowing Hole and Binkley Caves Discovered

February 23, 1985 - IU Basketball Coach Throws Chair Across Floor

February 28, 1893 - The USS Indiana Launched In Philadelphia

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© Mossy Feet Books 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 29, 1831 - Shelby County Seminary Organized

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 29, 1831 - Shelby County Seminary Organized
When Congress passed the Enabling Act on April 11, 1816, they provided land for the new state to establish a state seminary, or school. The Act also provided for schools at the township level. The Constitutional Convention attendees envisioned a further layer of schools provided at the county level. Thus, they established a system off county seminaries.
The County Seminaries
The legislature began chartering these seminaries in 1825. The funding for the seminaries was to come from conscientious objectors paying fees in lieu of military service and fines exacted from persons that broke penal laws. The funding from these sources was never adequate to the task. According to the law, each township was to elect three trustees, who would choose the school districts. Each male inhabitant over eighteen was required to work one day a week on the construction of the building, or pay a fine of thirty-seven cents for each day they abstained from service.
Shelby County's seminary was chartered in 1831. The county erected a two-story brick building for this school in 1835. The Constitution of 1851 changed this system to the township system and sold all the Seminary buildings in the state in 1852.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Saturday, January 28, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 28, 1922 - The Historic Indiana Movie Theatre Opened - Terre Haute

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 28, 1922 - The Historic Indiana Movie Theatre Opened - Terre Haute
An exciting new type of theatre experience debuted in Terra Haute on January 28, 1922 with the opening of the Indiana Theatre. Designed by famed architect, John Eberson, the theatre was one of his early experiments in his atmospheric theater style of movie palace.
John Eberson (1875–1954)
A native of Czernowitz, Bukovina, Austria-Hungary (Ukraine), John was the son of Sigfried and Lora (Schmidt) Eberson. He attended high school at Dresden, Saxony, and then went to the University of Vienna to study electrical engineering. In 1896, he joined the Austrian army. In 1901, he immigrated to St. Louis, Missouri via New York City. He joined Johnson Realty and Construction Company, traveling around the east coast of the United States promoting and building theatres in small towns. In 1903, he married Beatrice Lamb, with whom he had three children. The next year the couple moved to Hamilton, Ohio. In Hamilton, he designed several buildings. By 1910, he and Beatrice moved to Chicago. While in Chicago, he designed theatres for Karl Hoblitzelle's Interstate Amusement Company. After designing some theatres for Hoblitzelle, he started designing theatres using his atmospheric theatre style design. The first of this design was the Dallas Majestic in Dallas Texas in 1922. The Indiana Theatre was his second, in 1922.
Atmospheric Theatre
The atmospheric theatre replaced the standard movie experience of row of seats facing a screen with an experience of being outdoors in a European courtyard or garden. Overhead the ceiling was sky blue on which projectors cast images of clouds and ever-changing colors. As the production neared beginning, lighting effects cast the impression of a setting sun and the beginnings of twilight. The theatre transported the audience to a faraway time and place, creating a magic feeling over the audience as the theatre's production began.
Indiana Theatre
Designed by Eberson and constructed by T. W. Barhydt the theatre seated 2,018 people. On opening night the silent movie “Cappy Ricks” played, accompanied by a thirty piece orchestra. Afternoon tickets sold for twenty-five cents and evening tickets for forty cents. During its lifetime, the theatre has hosted vaudeville, cinema, performing arts and community celebrations. The theatre has recently been restored to its former glory. For more information about this Indiana treasure, contact:
Indiana Theatre
683 Ohio Street
Terre Haute, IN 47807
Office Number: (812) 232-8076
Fax Number: (812) 238-0333
Email: Info@IndianaTheater.com

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Friday, January 27, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 27, 1937 - Ohio River Reached its Highest State at Jeffersonville

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 27, 1937 - Ohio River Reached its Highest State at Jeffersonville
The Great Flood of 1937 reached its greatest extent on January 27, 1937 with flood levels reaching 19.1 feet above flood stage in Jeffersonville, Indiana
The Great Flood of 1937
Heavy rains over the Ohio River Valley during December and January of 1937 swelled the water levels in the Ohio River to unprecedented levels. The heaviest rainfall in Ohio occurred between January 13 and 25 when between six and twelve inches of rain fell. The Ohio River rose to 85.44 feet at Jeffersonville, flooding seventy percent of the city. All of the river towns of Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio and Illinois were affected. Hundreds of thousands of people had to evacuate, taking refuge in the towns and cities in southern Indiana. The flood lasted an entire month, with water levels beginning to rise on January 5 and not fully receding until February 5, 1937. The flooding caused an estimated $250,000,000 in damage. This was in 1937 dollars. In current values, that would be in excess of three billion dollars. This was an historic burden for a nation in the depths of the Great Depression.
Federal Government Response
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers sent their entire fleet of vessels downstream on the Cumberland River to rescue stranded citizens and provide relief efforts. Since the floodwaters were so high, the boats could not go under most of the bridges. The floodwaters forced the boats out of the river channels to sail over the flooded fields and roads, dodging building, power lines and other obstructions. President Franklin Roosevelt dispatched thousands of Works Progress Administration workers into the area to aid in flood relief.
Aftermath
The Flood was a truly historic flood. Historians searched documents and could find nothing in the old records to match it. Geologists studied the area and determined that nothing like it had ever happened before. The Federal Government instituted a flood control plan. This resulted in a series of seventy dams and locks to control the flooding. Completed in the 1940's, this system has reduced the flood damage in the years since.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
Facebook
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© Paul Wonning

Thursday, January 26, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 26, 1826 - "Boatload of Knowledge" Arrives in New Harmony

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 26, 1826 - "Boatload of Knowledge" Arrives in New Harmony
New Harmony was the location for two social experiments led by idealists. George Rapp, along with several other men, traveled to the Indiana Territory in April 1814. They sought a new site for their community in Pennsylvania. The site the town now occupies caught their eyes. They decided it was an ideal place to establish a community as the Wabash is navigable and close to the Ohio River. They could easily access the markets of New Orleans with their goods. They would establish a community on the banks of the Wabash and thrive there for ten years. Then they sold the town to a second group and moved their congregation back to another site in Pennsylvania.
The Owenites
The second group, headed by idealist Robert Owen, purchased the town and used it to perform an experiment in socialism. During this time, the town became a leading center of science, especially the natural sciences. During the Owenite period, numerous scientists descended on the town. The influx of science flourished and survived long after the collapse of Owens’s proposed utopia. The first of these, William Maclure, arrived in 1826. Several other scientists accompanied him from Philadelphia on the keelboat Philanthropist. Its entourage of artists, educators and scientists gave it name "Boatload of Knowledge."
Robert Owen (May 14, 1771 – November 17, 1858)
The sixth of sixteen children born to Robert Owen and his wife in Newton, Montgomeryshire, Mid Wales, Robert's formal education ended by age ten when a clothier apprenticed him. He finished his own education in his employer’s extensive library. His readings convinced him that all religions were fraught with flaws and led him to be a Deist. As such, he believed in God and believed him an “incomprehensible power." His superior management skills led him to become superintendent of a Manchester textile mill. Shortly afterward, he convinced his business partners to purchase a mill at New Lanark, Scotland. During his time at New Lenark, he applied several of his social experiments, gradually gaining the trust of the workers with his reforms. His experiments were costly, however, and led to discontent among his business partners. He found new ones that were willing to accept lower returns on their investments and proceeded unimpeded. His mill at New Lenark was a financial success and Owen amassed a fortune. It was this fortune that he wished to invest on a huge social experiment in the United States. He chose to purchase New Harmony from George Rapp when Rapp wanted to sell the community.
The "Boatload of Knowledge"
Owen's dream was to assemble a scientific community. Owen believed that the new United States was the best place to try to develop his utopian, socialist community. In 1824, he traveled to the United States to enter negotiations between the Rappites and the Shakers. After visiting the town of Harmony on the banks of the Wabash River in Indiana, he purchased it for $135,000 from the Rappites. He renamed it New Harmony. He recruited many people from Europe to come to his new community and advertised locally. His efforts attracted many of the top scientists of the era. He purchased a keelboat he called the Philanthropist and stocked it with some of the best minds of the era. Forty scientists, educators and thinkers crowded onto its deck and began the long voyage down the Ohio River to New Harmony. On Thursday, December 8, 1825, the Philanthropist left Pittsburg. It was a freezing cold day. Owen had originally intended to use a steamboat for the voyage, but the Ohio River was too low, so he outfitted the keelboat and set off. Owen, accompanying the scientists on the boat, dubbed it the "Boatload of Knowledge." Travel by keelboat on the Ohio River proved to be a slow, and at times dangerous, enterprise. The boat could only manage a few miles a day. The weather was cold, the ice covered river created problems and the passengers endured various degrees of discomfort during the voyage. Finally, on January 26, 1836, The "Boatload of Knowledge" arrived at their destination, New Harmony.
Portions of this article are excerpted from the author's A Visit to Harmonie State Park, Indiana book.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Wednesday, January 25, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 25, 1934 - John Dillinger Captured at Tucson, AZ, Extradited to Indiana

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 25, 1934 - John Dillinger Captured at Tucson, AZ, Extradited to Indiana
Arizona authorities captured John Dillinger in a bloodless, anti-climactic afternoon arrest as Dillinger strode up a sidewalk to a home he thought occupied by other members of his gang. Unfortunately, for Dillinger, the police had quietly arrested these men previously and had them in custody.
It All Begins With a Hotel Fire
Dillinger had escaped prison in Ohio in October 1933. The gang had engaged on a nationwide crime spree, and then decided to winter in Florida. After a few weeks, they decided to relocate to Arizona. Three members of his gang arrived in Tucson first, Harry Pierpont, “Fat Charlie” Makley and Russell Clark. These men registered under fake names at the Hotel Congress in downtown Tucson. On January 21 a fire broke out at the hotel and the Tucson Fire Department showed up to evacuate the building and put out the fire. As the firemen evacuated the building, one of the guests was apprehensive about his luggage, on the top floor. He persuaded a fireman to retrieve his luggage, which the fireman did. He noted that the bags were expensive looking and the man was uncommonly happy to get the bags back and tipped the fireman well for his efforts.
The Fireman and the Detective Magazine
A day or so later, the fireman read a detective magazine and noted some photos of the Dillinger gang, currently on the loose. John Dillinger was "Public Enemy No. 1." The man that tipped him for the luggage looked quite like one of the men in the photos, Russell Clark. The fireman made his discovery known to the Tucson police.
Bragging About Robbing Banks
Two tourists contacted the Tucson police at the same time, voicing concerns about two men they had been talking to in a hotel lounge. One of the men bragged about how easy it was to rob banks.
Arrest of Pierpont, Clark and Makley
After a quick investigation, police arrested Pierpont at a radio repair shop and Mackley on a traffic stop. That left the most dangerous of the trio, Russell Clark. The police tracked him down to a house close to the University of Arizona. The police arrested him, but not until Russell resisted violently. After cutting his scalp bad, the managed to get him into custody. They found the house loaded with guns, ammunition and bullet proof vests. There was no sign of Dillinger. They figured he would show up eventually, so they staked the house out.
Arrest
During the late afternoon hours of January 25, Dillinger did show up. As he approached the house, two policemen sidled up to him and cuffed him. Dillinger's only response to his surprise arrest was, “Well, I’ll be damned!”
Extradition to Indianapolis
Dillinger's reputation made Arizona authorities nervous. Violence always seemed to follow a Dillinger arrest, during which people died. They wanted to get him out as fast as possible, as he had not committed any crimes in Arizona. Many states wanted Dillinger for crimes committed in their states, but Arizona authorities sent him to Indiana, his home state and the state that had the most serious charges waiting for him. They extradited him on January 31 and sent him to Lake County jail in Crown Point, Indiana. Crown Point was considered escape proof. Dillinger had not met a prison he could not escape from, and Crown Point was no exception.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Tuesday, January 24, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 24, 1853 - First Passenger Train From Dayton via Union to Indianapolis

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 24, 1853 - First Passenger Train From Dayton via Union to Indianapolis
The historic meeting of five railroads in one spot on the Indiana/Ohio border in 1852 created a sensation and two towns, one in Indiana, the other just across the State Line in Ohio.
Meeting in the Forest
Businessmen from several states met in the forests of Indiana in 1849 at a spot near the Ohio border to decide the fate of the rail system of the Great Northwestern group of states. During this meeting the historic Bee Line sprang into existence with O. H. Smith named president. Indiana, which had only one rail line at the time, would have five rail lines meeting at the same spot within three years.
Two Railroads
The men at the meeting agreed that two companies would complete construction of a line that ran from Bellefontaine, Ohio to the spot in the wilderness that they had met. Another company would build a line running from Indianapolis to the same location, thus the two rail lines would meet, connecting Indianapolis with Bellefontaine. This railroad would be called the Indianapolis & Bellefontaine.
Bee Line
The Indianapolis & Bellefontaine had double tracks. It would eventually connect Indianapolis with Cleveland, Ohio and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, becoming the Indianapolis, Pittsburgh & Cleveland in the process. The line again changed names, becoming the Bellefontaine, or more simply, the Bee Line. This line went through more name changes, finally becoming part of the Penn Central system.
Four Railroads
Two other companies, one in Indiana and one in Ohio, were also planning to build two railroads that would meet at this spot. One would extend from Columbus, Ohio, the other from Logansport, Indiana. Thus, four rail lines would meet at this lonely spot in the wilderness.
Five Railroads
Another company had planned a line that would run from Dayton, Ohio to Greenville, Ohio, which was just a few miles from the spot that the four rail lines would meet. They decided to extend their line to intersect the other lines, thus five rail lines would meet at this lonely spot.
Union City
One of the railroads promoters, a man named Jeremiah Smith, figured the spot at the junction of the five lines would be a good spot to locate a town. So, on December 19, 1848 he purchased 160 acres of virgin forest at the junction point and platted a town. He recorded the plat on December 17, 1849. The original plat contained 252 lots and gave the railroads a right of way in return for a perpetual promise to stop at the new town forever, to be called Union. This plat was later changed to include smaller lots and the number of lots increased to 483. New arrivals began coming into the town. Some favored a spot a short distance to the east, across the Ohio State Line. At this spot, a small settlement already existed and the Deerfield Road crossed the new line. Fearing his town would spill over into Ohio, something he did not desire, he purchased an additional forty acres along the state line and left it undeveloped until 1870. By then, Union, Indiana was established and he didn't fear his Indiana town would become an Ohio town.
The First Passenger Line Passes Through
The first train to reach Union was on Christmas Day, 1852. The first passenger train to pass through from Bellefontaine, Ohio to Indianapolis, Indiana arrived on January 24, 1853. The knitting together of the Northwestern States by rail was under way.
Union City, Ohio maintains a park called Railroad Park that occupies the spot that the original train depot stood. Union City, Indiana maintains the Union City Preservation Society Museum in a restored hotel near the site of the passenger depot.
For more information about Union City, Indiana and Union City, Ohio, visit this link.
Union City, Indiana
105 N. Columbia St.
Union City, IN
765-964-6534

Union City, Ohio
419 E. Elm St.
Union City, OH
937-968-4305

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Monday, January 23, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 23, 1900 - Miriam Mason Swain Born

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 23, 1900 - Miriam Mason Swain Born
Miriam Mason Swain (1900-1973)
A native of Goshen, Indiana, children's book writer Miriam Mason Swain grew up on a farm near Goshen. As a child, she dreamed of becoming one of three things when she grew up, a circus performer, a doctor or an author. Her mother dampened her ambition to become a circus performer by telling her she did not think they were respectable. Miriam concocted medicines that no one would take. Therefore, that left author, a career she succeeded at beyond her expectations.
Early Life
She moved to Bloomington to teach school. During that time, she also became assistant editor of a magazine in Spencer, Indiana. During her time in Bloomington, she married Morris Swain, with whom she had one daughter. Her husband died and she lost her job as assistant editor when the magazine closed. She turned down a job offer with another magazine, sat down at the typewriter, and began writing. She had sold some short stories and other things before, so she had some idea of what she was doing.
Success as Writer
She went on to publish over fifty-five titles, mostly children's books. In the 1940, she moved to Batesville, Indiana, where she lived until her death in 1973. Her books deal with nature, animals and farming. The books are noted for their sensible, realistic approach to life and nature.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Sunday, January 22, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 22, 1928 - Grand Beach Ski Club Holds First Ski Jump Meet

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 22, 1928 - Grand Beach Ski Club Holds First Ski Jump Meet
Ski slides became popular in the area around Chicago during the 1920's and the rolling dunes of northwestern Indiana were ideal terrain for the construction of "ski slides."
Ski Slides
Ski slides were huge slides with a tower at the apex that allowed skiers to ski down the slide and, using the speed built up during their swift descent and the steep angle of the slide, to vault into flight.
Largest in the World
The 1930-31 National Ski Association Year Book declared, "The new steel ski slide erected by the Ogden Dunes Ski Club is the tallest . . . all steel structure in America today . . ." The Grand Beach Ski Club planned a tower of 240 feet. However, the company that contracted to build the tower did not have the structure completed in time for the January 22 meet. The meet took place on a tower that was only 150 feet tall. The eventual height of the completed tower was 192 feet. The longest jump off this structure was 195 feet.

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© Paul Wonning

Saturday, January 21, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 21, 1785 - Treaty of Fort McIntosh Signed

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 21, 1785 - Treaty of Fort McIntosh Signed
The United States Government signed a treaty with various Amerindian tribes at Fort McIntosh in which the tribes signed away most of the future states of Ohio and portions of Indiana.
Fort McIntosh
Fort McIntosh is located at the junction of the Ohio and the Beaver Rivers. Lieutenant. Colonel Cambray-Digny designed and oversaw construction of the wooden stockade fortress in 1778. The Army abandoned the fort in 1791. The Residents of Beaver, Pennsylvania have restored the fort and it is open for visitation. For more information contact:
Beaver Area Heritage Foundation
Post Office Box 147
Beaver, PA 15009
info@beaverheritage.org
The Conference
George Rogers Clark, Arthur Lee, and Richard Butler represented the Confederation Congress at Fort McIntosh. The native delegation included members of the Wyandot, the Lenape (Delaware), the Ottawa, and the Ojibwa (Chippewa) tribes. Most important, the Shawnee did not attend. Another problem was that the Amerindian delegations included mostly younger chiefs who did not have the authority to sign a treaty of this magnitude. After plying the natives with alcohol for several days, the Americans convinced the natives to sign the treaty, which they did, on January 21, 1785.
The Treaty
The borders established by the treaty consisted roughly of the Cuyahoga River on the east. A southern border extended from modern-day Akron westward to the Tuscarawas River, southward to Fort Laurens, then westward to Pickawillany on the Miami River. A western border ran north from Pickawillany to the St. Mary's River, and then to current Ft. Wayne, Indiana. The treaty confined the natives to the northwest corner of Ohio. The whites promised not to settle west of the new boundary.
Aftermath
Instead of easing tensions between the whites and the natives, the treaty increased them. Whites continued encroaching on native lands. Many of the other tribes, including the powerful Shawnees, rejected it. Tensions continued to rise, resulting in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Friday, January 20, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 20, 1820 - Indiana Legislative Act Approved Establishing State Seminary (Indiana University)

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 20, 1820 - Indiana Legislative Act Approved Establishing State Seminary (Indiana University)
When the United States Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance, it included in the act a passage that encouraged the states formed from the Territory to promote public education. In the Territorial Assembly's petition for Statehood in 1816, the petition included a request for one township of land to be set aside for a state seminary. Congress complied with this request. The Constitutional Convention included this in the first state constitution written in 1816.
Northwest Ordinance
Congress passed The Ordinance of 1787 on July 13, 1787, creating a vast territory in what was then the western United States. The Ordinance provided that at least three but not more than five states would be formed in this vast territory. In order to qualify for statehood, a state had to have at least 60,000 inhabitants. When the region reached that goal, Congress would admit it as a state on equal footing with the original thirteen states. The Congress encouraged education in the territory by including a clause that stated, "Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged."
Petition for Statehood
The Petition requested that the Federal Government reserve one entire township in the state for educational purposes, stipulating, “the promotion of useful Knowledge, is the best Guarantee to our civil institutions.” When Congress passed the Enabling Act in April 1816 granting Indiana the right to form a State, the Congress complied with this request. This was necessary because unsettled land in the Territory was part of the public domain and belonged to the Federal Government. The Federal government sold this land to businesses and individuals. Surveyors divided this land into townships of thirty-six square miles. By granting a full township, the Federal Government allowed the State of Indiana to use one township for educational purposes without having to purchase the parcel from the Federal Government.
Education in the Constitution of 1816
The men that framed Indiana's first Constitution enshrined this grant in Article IX, Section 2 of the 1816 Indiana Constitution. This article states, “it shall be the duty of the General assembly [sic], as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide, by law, for a general system of education, ascending in a regular gradation from township schools to a state university, wherein tuition shall be gratis, and equally open to all.”
An Act to Establish a State Seminary and for Other Purposes
On January 20, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly passed this act approving the State Seminary, which later became Indiana University. The Act appointed a board of trustees and required them to meet on the first Monday in June in Bloomington, Indiana to select the site for the university in the township reserved for that purpose. Indiana University celebrates this date as "Founders Day."

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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Thursday, January 19, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files -0 January 19, 1846 - Peru and Indianapolis Railroad Incorporated

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 19, 1846 - Peru and Indianapolis Railroad Incorporated
The Peru and Indianapolis Railroad connected Indianapolis, Indiana with Peru, Indiana and the Wabash and Erie Canal.
Peru, Indiana
William N. Hood founded Peru in 1834 on the banks of the Wabash River. The first boat on the Wabash and Erie Canal reached Peru on July 4, 1837. Peru is the county seat of Miami County, southwest of Fort Wayne in northern Indiana.
Wabash and Erie Canal
Construction on the Wabash and Erie Canal began on February 22, 1832 at Fort Wayne, Indiana. Construction completed on July 4, 1843. At 468 miles long, it was the longest canal in the United States and the second longest in the world. The canal connected the Erie Canal with Evansville, Indiana. It was one of only two canals completed by the Massive Internal Improvement Act of 1836. The other is the Whitewater Canal. The canal's excessive operating costs and the advent of the railroad made the canal impractical. It ceased operations by 1857. Portions of the canal still exist. Interested visitors can visit one section and take a canal ride:
Wabash & Erie Canal
1030 N. Washington St.
Delphi, IN 46923
Peru and Indianapolis Railroad
Construction began on the Peru and Indianapolis Railroad in 1849 at its southern terminus in Indianapolis. Construction completed to Peru in 1854, seventy miles north of its beginning. The Peru and Indianapolis Railroad did not have any of its own equipment, the line operated under a lease with the Madison and Indianapolis. The Erie Canal ceased operation by 1857, but the Peru and Indianapolis Railroad established links with other rail lines in Peru, connecting it with Chicago, New York and other cities across the Midwest. The railroad stimulated economic growth in the area it served.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Wednesday, January 18, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 18, 1850 – Governor Signs Law for Constitutional Delegate Election

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 18, 1850 – Governor Signs Law for Constitutional Delegate Election 
As per the electoral mandate delivered by the voters of Indiana on the August 6, 1849 Referendum, The Indiana General Assembly passed an act calling for the assembly of a Constitutional Convention. Indiana Governor Paris C. Dunning continued a process begun by his predecessor Governor James Whitcomb by signing the legislation approving the election of delegates to amend or revise the old constitution or write a new one.
James Whitcomb (December 1, 1795 – October 4, 1852)
The eighth governor of Indiana, Whitcomb called for a new constitution for Indiana in 1848. His repeated calls led to the Indiana General Assembly calling for a referendum for the voters to decide the matter. He resigned the governorship in 1848 to take an Indiana Senate seat for which he won election.
Paris C. Dunning (March 15, 1806 – May 9, 1884)
The only person to hold every elected position in Indiana under the 1816 Constitution, Dunning took control as Indiana’s ninth governor during a time of Constitutional change. He had served as Whitcomb's Lieutenant Governor and stepped into the position of Governor when Whitcomb resigned to take a seat in the United States Senate. He signed the legislation authorizing the election of delegates on January 18, 1850.
Election of Delegates
The election was set for the first Monday in August, which was the date of the general elections under the old Constitution. This day fell on August 6, 1850. The number of delegates was fixed at 150. This number included one member from each of Indiana's Senatorial districts to total 50 and 100 from Indiana's representative districts. The Convention would begin meeting on the first Monday in October and was charged with revising, amending or new modeling the old constitution.
Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Tuesday, January 17, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 17, 1814 - Washington County Created

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 17, 1814 - Washington County Created
Washington County, Indiana
Founded 1814
County Seat - Salem, Indiana
Total Square Miles - 517
Population - (2000) - 27,223
The first European to live in the area that became Washington County was a hunter/trapper and salt manufacturer who lived among the Ox Indians in 1802. He was in the area called the Lick, about two miles east of Salem. A man named Thomas Hopper settled near what is now Hardinsburg in 1803.
Washington County, Indiana, named after George Washington, was formed in 1814 by an act of the Territorial Legislature passed on December 21, 1813. Indiana Territory Governor John Gibson named Isaac Blackbird the first county clerk and recorder. He then appointed William Hoggart sheriff; William Lindley, surveyor; Jeremiah Lamb, coroner; and Johnathon Lindley, Moses Hoggart, and Simeon Lamb circuit court judges. He selected Joseph Paddox, Peter McIntosh, Ignatius Abel, Marston G. Clark and Joseph Bartholomew to select a site for the county seat. The men met on January 17, 1814 near the geographical center of the county in William Lindlay's home. The men inspected sites at Royse’s Lick, Beck’s Mill, Camp Spring, Mill Creek, and Fort Hill before finally deciding on a spot at the junction of the Blue River and Brock Creek. They chose the name Salem for the new county seat, naming it after William Lindley's wife's hometown in North Carolina. By February 14, John DePauw, appointed to plat the new town, had completed his work and lot sales in Salem began on the second Tuesday in April of 1814.
Cities and towns of Washington County include:
Campbellsburg
Fredericksburg
Hardinsburg
Little York
Livonia
New Pekin
Pekin
Salem
Saltillo
Townships include:
Brown
Franklin
Gibson
Howard
Jackson
Jefferson
Madison
Monroe
Pierce
Polk
Posey
Vernon
Washington
Three Indiana State Highways cross Washington County on an east west route, Indiana State Routes 60, 160 and 56. US 15 tickles the southwest boundary of Washington County. The CSX rail line crosses the county, bisecting it as it connects Clarksville Indiana with Bedford, Indiana.
Agri-Tourism Sites in Washington County include:
Artesian and Farmer's Market
Cornucopia Farms
Grateful Goat Winery
Farmers Market
Hein Tree Farm
Historical Attractions:
Beck's Mill
Carnegie Library
Courthouse
Crown Hill Cemetery
Morgan Trail
Pioneer Village
Museums:
John Hay Center
Piper Flight Center
Salem Depot
Stevens Memorial
Stevens Genealogy Library
Motor sports:
Salem Speedway
Thunder Valley Raceway
Outdoor Recreation:
Lakes
Canoeing
Delaney Creek
State Forest
Knobstone Trail
Swimming
Golf
For more information on Washington County Tourism, click the link.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Monday, January 16, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 16, 1836 - Assembly Passed Mammoth Internal Improvement Act of 1836

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 16, 1836 - Assembly Passed Mammoth Internal Improvement Act of 1836
The Indiana General Assembly passed what many hoped would be a financial boon for the developing state of Indiana. Instead, the Act led to financial ruin.
The State of the State in 1836
When Indiana became a state in 1816, the state was a vast network of forest, prairie, rivers and streams. White settlement clung to the southern counties along the Ohio River, with a sliver of settlement along the Wabash River in the west. Amerindian tribes still claimed the northern two-thirds of the state. By the 1830’s, the situation had not changed much. Indianapolis, the new state capital, was a muddy pioneer settlement along the White River. The southern counties had access to the Ohio River, the only good means of transportation. Since only the Wabash River was navigable, other parts of the state had no access to reliable transportation systems. The only roads were trails cut through the wilderness. The state had begun construction on the Michigan Road, slated to be a main artery between Lake Michigan and Madison on the Ohio River, but construction would not finish until the 1840's. The Buffalo Trace provided a rough highway from Vincennes to Clarksville. By 1830, Indiana had a population of about 600,000 people. Tax revenues for the state totaled around $50,000.
Tax Revenue
Indiana had two sources of tax revenue in 1830, property taxes and poll taxes, each providing about half the state's revenue. Indiana and other states admitted to the Union after 1803 were prohibited from taxing land purchased from the federal government for a period of five years. Thus, by the mid 1830's, vast areas of land that it could not previously tax were entering the tax base. In addition, land sales remained high in the state during the period, so more lands would continually enter the revenue stream.  Indiana expected to double its tax revenue in just a few years. Moreover, anything the assembly could do to increase land values would increase tax revenue. This was especially true if the state switched to a different tax system. The state used a per acre tax system, placing a greater tax burden on agricultural land. The state switched to an ad valorem system in 1835, which permitted the state to tax both land and personal property at a rate based on its assessed value. This system reduced the burden on farmers and increased it on merchants, homeowners and manufacturers.
The Geographic Quandary
The rising star of transportation in the early 1830’s were canals. New York had great success with the Erie Canal and there were other examples. Railroads had not yet become mainstream. Thus, most states had canal construction projects. The problem with canals is that they are geographic specific in the benefits they bestowed and widespread in the taxing requirements to produce the revenue to finance them. The assembly struggled for years over this problem. How to tax everyone in the state for a canal that would only benefit one geographic region was the unanswerable question. The answer seemed to be, build them all at once and jump-start an economic boom everywhere in the state. This is what the Mammoth Internal Improvement Act of 1836 sought to do.
Mammoth Internal Improvement Act of 1836
Signed into law by Governor Noah Noble, the act was meant to be his crowning achievement. The law authorized the Indiana Central Canal, the Whitewater Canal, the Wabash and Erie Canal, the Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, paving the Buffalo Trace and Michigan Road. The bill provided for a Board of Internal Improvement, which was authorized to borrow up to ten million dollars, based on the good faith and credit of the State. Jubilant celebrations took place all over the state with the passage of the bill. Governor Noble was cautious because the Assembly had passed the spending portion of his program, but had not followed his tax increase recommendations.
Too Much at Once
The aims of the law, while noble, were much too ambitious. Construction of canals is an expensive business. Construction of the Whitewater Canal was impaired by a flood that washed out much of the completed work. Many of the sites slated for canal construction were in reality not suitable sites. Then the Panic of 1837 set in.
Panic of 1837
This complex event created an economic depression that lasted from about 1837 until 1842. The multiple causes were questionable lending practices in the Western United States, restrictive lending policies enacted by Great Britain and falling agricultural prices. The period before 1837 had been a period of intense economic growth. During this time the prices of cotton and other commodities rose. Land prices also increased. The Bank of England noticed a decline in cash on hand in 1836. They raised interest rates in an attempt to attract more cash. When the Bank of England raised its interest, it forced banks in the United States and other nations to raise their rates. This, along with other events, caused land and cotton prices to fall. The chain of events this set off triggered a depression that caused profits, prices, and wages to fall and increased the unemployment rates. It was not until 1843 that the economies of the major countries rebounded.
Tax Revenues Fall, Then Disaster
The conditions induced by the Panic created an economic depression. Land values fell, as did tax revenues. Instead of having more revenue to work with, the State found itself with less. By 1841, tax revenues were $72,000 while interest payments on the debt reached $500,000. The State was bankrupt. The State had not completed any of the slated projects. It was left to Madison's James F.D. Lanier to use his financial wizardry to convince creditors to take over the projects for a fifty percent reduction in the debt. Creditors were only able to complete two of these projects. Lanier also aided the state with two loans totaling one million dollars. The State managed to repay it by 1870.
Thus, what many consider the biggest legislative debacle of all time ended.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Sunday, January 15, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 15, 1794 - Indiana Governor Noah Noble Born

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 15, 1794 - Indiana Governor Noah Noble Born
Noah Noble (January 15, 1794 – February 8, 1844)
Elizabeth Clair Sedgwick Noble presented her husband, Dr. Thomas Noble, with their new son on January 15, 1794 in Berryville, Virginia. Noah was one of fourteen children born to the couple. The family migrated to Campbell County, Kentucky in 1800, where Dr. Noble opened a medical practice. At seventeen, Noah joined his brother, James, in Brookville, Indiana. His brother had a successful law practice in Brookville and later became a Senator to the United States Senate from Indiana.
Businessman
From 1811, Noah operated several businesses around Brookville. These included a hotel, a water powered weaving mill and a trading company. The trading company purchased produce from farmers in the Brookville area. They exported this produce to New Orleans for sale there. A boating accident in 1819 ended this business, in which he lost an entire shipment. The debt incurred by this disaster left him indebted for many years. He married Catherin Stull that same year. The couple had three children, two of which died young.
Military
Following his business venture, he enlisted in the 7th Regiment of the Indiana militia unit in 1819. He became a lieutenant colonel, eventually gaining promotion to colonel in 1820.
Politics
His first foray into politics was a run for sheriff of Franklin County in 1820. He won this election handily and after his term ended, he won an easy election to the Indiana House of Representatives in 1824. He gained a position with the Indiana Land Office in Indianapolis from 1825 to 1829. In this position, he collected money from land sales in the state for the Federal Government. He helped on the Michigan Road project, a major road connecting Lake Michigan with the Ohio River. In 1830, he gained the nomination for governor of Indiana as a Whig.
Whig Party
The Whigs were a major political party early in the Nineteenth Century. They espoused rapid economic and industrial growth. Their philosophy advocated government support for a free market system, and encouraged business people with skill and expertise. They wanted a superior bank credit system, high tariffs, a business-oriented money supply based on a national bank. Strong supporters of internal improvements, they advocated a strong infrastructure of roads and canals. They also favored a system of public schools, private colleges, charities, and cultural institutions. They were opposed by the Democratic Party, which advocated an egalitarian agricultural society. They believed that modernization led to the development of a powerful aristocratic class that would threaten democracy.  During this period, Whigs tended to be more successful on the State level, while Democrats on the national level.
Governor (Dec 07, 1831 - Dec 06, 1837)
As a Whig, Noble was a strong proponent of internal improvements in the state. His most notable achievement was passage of the Mammoth Internal Improvement Act in 1836. He recommended a tax increase to pay for the act, a recommendation the Legislature failed to enact. This failure proved unfortunate for the State of Indiana and fatal for the Whig Party in Indiana. The massive debt incurred by the expenses of the bill forced the State into bankruptcy after the Panic of 1837 and led to the demise of the Whig party in Indiana.
Retirement
The failure of the Mammoth Internal Improvement Act in 1836 was a political disaster for Noble, who retired to private life at the end of his term. He died in Indianapolis in 1844 and is interred in Crown Hill Cemetery. Noble County, in northeast Indiana, is named in his honor.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Saturday, January 14, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 14, 1851 - First Train Arrived In Salem, Indiana

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 14, 1851 - First Train Arrived In Salem, Indiana
The first train from New Albany, Indiana on the Ohio River reached Salem, Indiana. The arrival of the New Albany & Salem Rail Road preceded an economic boon for the town and the first link in a rail line connecting Lake Michigan and the Ohio River.
Salem, Indiana
Platted in 1814 by William Lindley, Lindley's wife suggested the name Salem for the new town at a meeting called to pick a name. The other agreed, and Salem it became. Pioneers crossing the Ohio River had to negotiate deer and buffalo trails to arrive at the growing town. By the 1840's the task of shipping goods into and out of the town had become an arduous task. The roads connecting the town were mud roads, heavily rutted and slow to travel on. In 1847, a group of Salem businessmen proposed a solution. They would build a railroad.
Meeting at Borden
On July 8, 1847, a group of Salem and New Albany businessmen met at Borden, Indiana to discus railroads. Out of this meeting came a plan to build a railroad from the Ohio River at New Albany to Salem. They would call the railroad the New Albany & Salem Rail Road.
New Albany & Salem Rail Road
Construction began in 1847. The rail line reached Borden and Pekin, Indiana in 1850 and Salem in 1851. A crowd of 5,000 people greeted the first train to roll into Salem on January 14, 1851.
On to Lake Michigan
By the time the rail line reached Salem, the men running the line decided that they could take it all the way to Lake Michigan. They completed this line with Michigan City on Lake Michigan in 1854. This rail line went bankrupt in 1858. After several name changes, this line eventually became the Monon Line in 1956.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Friday, January 13, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 13, 1890 - Elmer Davis Born - Journalist, Radio Commentator

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 13, 1890 - Elmer Davis Born - Journalist, Radio Commentator
Elmer Davis (January 13, 1890 - May 18, 1958)
Louise (Severin) Davis presented her husband Elam Holmes Davis their son Elmer in Aurora, Indiana. Elam was a cashier at the First National Bank and his mother the principal of Aurora High School. Elmer got his first job as a printer's devil while a freshman in high school with the Aurora Bulletin.  A printer's devil mixed ink and fetched type for the press workers in a newspaper.
After entering Franklin College he became editor of the school newspaper and got a job writing for the Indianapolis Star newspaper.
After graduating from Franklin he obtained a Masters Degree from Oxford. He spent some time traveling in Europe, where he met the woman that would become his wife. A native of Mount Vernon, New York Florence Macmillan had been visiting Europe when they met. They married in 1917.
Newspaperman and Novelist
He joined the New York Times as a reporter and wrote stories, novels, political and historical essays during his spare time. His published novels include The Princess Cecilia (1913), History of the New York Times (1921), and the popular novel Times Have Changed (1923).
Television
In 1939, CBS contacted him about filling in for popular correspondent H.V. Kaltenborn, who was in Europe covering the deteriorating political situation there. Davis took the job and became an instant success. Many in the industry felt it was Davis' Hoosier accent that lent a warm, homey feeling to his broadcasts.
Office of War Information
At the beginning of the Second World War, Franklin Delano Roosevelt tapped his expertise to head the new federal Office of War Information. During his stint there he convinced Roosevelt that the government should not hide the numbers of war dead, that the American people deserved the truth about wartime developments. He also convinced Roosevelt to change the policy of not photographing the bodies of American service members on the battlefield. He wanted to impart the full impact of the contribution bequeathed by the nation's young men. Roosevelt concurred with both arguments, changing the policies.
Return to Radio and Television
After the war he took a job first with ABC radio and went on to become television broadcaster for the network. He disagreed with the activities of Communist hunter Eugene McCarthy. However, a strong anti-communist, Davis opposed McCarthy's methods. He began a nationwide campaign to advocate free thought and civil liberties.
Best Selling Book
He published a collection of his essays and speeches in 1953, But We Were Born Free, that became a best seller. He published one more book, Two Minutes Till Midnight. In 1958 he suffered a stroke, dying two months later.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Thursday, January 12, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files -+ January 12, 1853 - Robert Underwood Johnson Born - Writer, Poet, Editor

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 12, 1853 - Robert Underwood Johnson Born - Writer, Poet, Editor
Robert Underwood Johnson (January 12, 1853 – October 14, 1937)
The son of Nimrod Hoge and Katharin (Catherine Coyle Underwood) Johnson, Robert was born in Washington, D. C. His parents moved to Indiana when he was young, where he spent the bulk of his boyhood. After graduating from Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana, Robert got a job as clerk for Scribner Educational Books in Chicago. By the time he was twenty he had been promoted the Scribner's Monthly, which later became The Century Magazine. He became associate editor of that magazine and later the editor, until 1913.
Writer
He wrote the four volume series, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War and several volumes of poetry. Many considered him the unofficial poet laureate of the United States. His activity with literary organizations included a stint as secretary for the American Copyright League.
National Parks
Underwood also became active in the National Park movement. He and naturalist John Muir became friends and went on a camping trip together. He encouraged John Muir to write conservation articles, which he published in Century Magazine. The articles were influential in the government establishing Yosemite National Park and his appeals to President Theodore Roosevelt led to the White House conferences on conservation.
During his lifetime, he became friends with Theodore Roosevelt, John Burroughs, Nikola Tesla, Mark Twain, and Rudyard Kipling. His brother, Henry, served as a congressman and later Senator from Indiana.

+Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning
+

Wednesday, January 11, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 11, 1805 - Congress Separates Michigan Territory from Indiana Territory

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 11, 1805 - Congress Separates Michigan Territory from Indiana Territory
Congress established the Northwest Territory on July 13, 1787. The Territory existed as a legal entity from that date until Ohio became a State in 1803. Congress eventually carved six states out of the Territory.  This separation was the second act of dividing this vast territory into states. When Congress made the first division, they separated the Northwest Territory from the Indiana Territory in 1800. The Northwest Territory consisted of thirteen counties at the time.
Washington County
Hamilton County,
Adams County
Jefferson County
Ross County
Trumbull County
Clermont County
Fairfield County
Belmont County
St. Clair County
Knox County
Randolph County
Wayne County
On April 7, 1800, Congress detached four counties from the Northwest Territory and formed the Indiana Territory.
St. Clair County
Knox County
Randolph County
Wayne County - Western half
Ohio became a State on March 3, 1803. The eastern half of Wayne County detached from Ohio and added to the Indiana Territory. The Northwest Territory ceased to exist.
By January 11, 1805, Congress detached Wayne County, which covered most of modern day Michigan and formed the Michigan Territory. Detroit became the capital of the Michigan Territory, while the capital of the Indiana Territory remained at Vincennes until 1813, when the Territorial Assembly moved it to Corydon, Indiana.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
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© Paul Wonning

Tuesday, January 10, 2017

Hoosier Dusty Files - January 10, 1825 - Indiana General Assembly Holds First Session in Indianapolis

A Year of Indiana History - 2016
A Year of Indiana History - 2016

January 10, 1825 - Indiana General Assembly Holds First Session in Indianapolis
The first session of the Indiana General Assembly convened in the Marion County courthouse in the new State Capital of Indianapolis. The seat of government had moved from the first state capital of Corydon, where it had met since August 5, 1816.
Marion County Courthouse
The original Marion County Courthouse, built in 1824, served as the first home of the Indiana General Assembly in Indianapolis. This building featured eight statues that overlooked the courthouse property. When the building was razed, only these eight statues survived. Four are in Holiday Park along the White River in north central Indianapolis. Three of the statues are in Crown Hill Cemetery, the location of the Court House. In addition, one is out of state, possibly in California. The Courthouse was razed around 1876 when the City of Indianapolis built a new one. The Legislature used this building until the new capitol was built in 1834.

Indiana possesses a rich history that is fun to read and learn. This Hoosier Dusty Files is in an easy to read “this day in history format” and includes articles from the author's A Year in Indiana History series. Visitors may read the articles as they appear or purchase the book:
A Year of Indiana History - 2016
Facebook
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© Paul Wonning